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U.S. and China work together to build a cooperative partnership
U.S. - China Joint Statement (January 2011)
1. At the invitation of President Barack Obama of the United
States of America, President Hu Jintao of the People’s
Republic of China is paying a state visit to the United States
of America from January 18-21, 2011. During his visit, President
Hu met with Vice President Joseph Biden, will meet with U.S.
Congressional leadership, and will visit Chicago.
2. The two Presidents reviewed the progress made in the relationship
since President Obama’s November 2009 State Visit to
China and reaffirmed their commitment to building a positive,
cooperative, and comprehensive U.S. - China relationship for
the 21st century, which serves the interests of the American
and Chinese peoples and of the global community. The two sides
reaffirmed that the three Joint Communiqués issued by
the United States and China laid the political foundation for
the relationship and will continue to guide the development
of U.S. - China relations. The two sides reaffirmed respect
for each other’s sovereignty and territorial integrity.
The Presidents further reaffirmed their commitment to the November
2009 U.S. - China Joint Statement.
3. The United States and China committed to work together to
build a cooperative partnership based on mutual respect and
mutual benefit in order to promote the common interests of
both countries and to address the 21st century's opportunities
and challenges. The United States and China are actively cooperating
on a wide range of security, economic, social, energy, and
environmental issues which require deeper bilateral engagement
and coordination. The two leaders agreed that broader and deeper
collaboration with international partners and institutions
is required to develop and implement sustainable solutions
and to promote peace, stability, prosperity, and the well-being
of peoples throughout the world.
Strengthening U.S. - China Relations
4. Recognizing the importance of the common challenges that
they face together, the United States and China decided to
continue working toward a partnership that advances common
interests, addresses shared concerns, and highlights international
responsibilities. The two leaders recognize that the relationship
between the United States and China is both vital and complex.
The United States and China have set an example of positive
and cooperative relations between countries, despite different
political systems, historical and cultural backgrounds, and
levels of economic development. The two sides agreed to work
further to nurture and deepen bilateral strategic trust to
enhance their relations. They reiterated the importance of
deepening dialogue aimed at expanding practical cooperation
and affirmed the need to work together to address areas of
disagreement, expand common ground, and strengthen coordination
on a range of issues.
5. The United States reiterated that it welcomes a strong,
prosperous, and successful China that plays a greater role
in world affairs. China welcomes the United States as an Asia-Pacific
nation that contributes to peace, stability and prosperity
in the region. Working together, both leaders support efforts
to build a more stable, peaceful, and prosperous Asia-Pacific
region for the 21st century.
6. Both sides underscored the importance of the Taiwan issue
in U.S. - China relations. The Chinese side emphasized that
the Taiwan issue concerns China’s sovereignty and territorial
integrity, and expressed the hope that the U.S. side will honor
its relevant commitments and appreciate and support the Chinese
side’s position on this issue. The U.S. side stated that
the United States follows its one China policy and abides by
the principles of the three U.S.-China Joint Communiqués.
The United States applauded the Economic Cooperation Framework
Agreement between the two sides of the Taiwan Strait and welcomed
the new lines of communications developing between them. The
United States supports the peaceful development of relations
across the Taiwan Strait and looks forward to efforts by both
sides to increase dialogues and interactions in economic, political,
and other fields, and to develop more positive and stable cross-Strait
7. The United States and China reiterated their commitment
to the promotion and protection of human rights, even as they
continue to have significant differences on these issues. The
United States stressed that the promotion of human rights and
democracy is an important part of its foreign policy. China
stressed that there should be no interference in any country’s
internal affairs. The United States and China underscored that
each country and its people have the right to choose their
own path, and all countries should respect each other's choice
of a development model. Addressing differences on human rights
in a spirit of equality and mutual respect, as well as promoting
and protecting human rights consistent with international instruments,
the two sides agreed to hold the next round of the U.S.- C
hina Human Rights Dialogue before the third round of the Strategic
and Economic Dialogue (S&ED).
8. The United States and China agreed to hold the next round
of the resumed Legal Experts Dialogue before the next Human
Rights Dialogue convenes. The United States and China further
agreed to strengthen cooperation in the field of law and exchanges
on the rule of law. The United States and China are actively
exploring exchanges and discussions on the increasing role
of women in society.
9. The United States and China affirmed that a healthy, stable,
and reliable military-to-military relationship is an essential
part of President Obama’s and President Hu’s shared
vision for a positive, cooperative, and comprehensive U.S.-China
relationship. Both sides agreed on the need for enhanced and
substantive dialogue and communication at all levels: to reduce
misunderstanding, misperception, and miscalculation; to foster
greater understanding and expand mutual interest; and to promote
the healthy, stable, and reliable development of the military-to-military
relationship. Both sides noted the successful visit of Secretary
of Defense Robert Gates to China earlier this month, and that
the United States welcomes Chief of the PLA General Staff General
Chen Bingde to the United States in the first half of 2011.
Both sides reaffirmed that the Defense Consultative Talks,
the Defense Policy Coordination Talks, and the Military Maritime
Consultative Agreement will remain important channels of communication
in the future. Both sides will work to execute the seven priority
areas for developing military-to-military relations as agreed
to by Secretary Gates and General Xu Caihou, Vice Chairman
of the Central Military Commission in October 2009.
10. The United States and China agreed to take specific actions
to deepen dialogue and exchanges in the field of space. The
United States invited a Chinese delegation to visit NASA headquarters
and other appropriate NASA facilities in 2011 to reciprocate
for the productive visit of the U.S. NASA Administrator to
China in 2010. The two sides agreed to continue discussions
on opportunities for practical future cooperation in the space
arena, based on principles of transparency, reciprocity, and
11. The United States and China acknowledged the accomplishments
under the bilateral Agreement on Cooperation in Science and
Technology, one of the longest-standing bilateral agreements
between the two countries, and welcomed the signing of its
extension. The United States and China will continue to cooperate
in such diverse areas as agriculture, health, energy, environment,
fisheries, student exchanges, and technological innovation
in order to advance mutual well-being.
12. The United States and China welcomed progress by the U.S.-China
Joint Liaison Group on Law Enforcement Cooperation (JLG) to
strengthen law enforcement cooperation across a range of issues,
including counterterrorism. The United States and China also
agreed to enhance joint efforts to combat corruption through
bilateral and other means.
Promoting High-Level Exchanges
13. The two sides agreed that high-level exchanges are indispensable
to strong U.S.-China relations, and that close, frequent, and
in-depth dialogue is important to advance bilateral relations
and international peace and development. In this spirit, both
Presidents look forward to meeting again in the coming year,
including in the state of Hawaii for the U.S.-hosted 2011 Asia-Pacific
Economic Cooperation (APEC) Leaders’ meeting. China welcomed
Vice President Biden for a visit in 2011. The United States
welcomed a subsequent visit by Vice President Xi Jinping.
14. The two sides praised the S&ED as a key mechanism for
coordination between the two governments, and agreed to hold
the third round of the S&ED in Washington, D.C., in May
2011. The S&ED has played an important role in helping
build trust and confidence between the two countries. The two
sides also agreed to hold the second meeting of the High-Level
Consultation on People-to-People Exchange in the United States
in the spring of 2011, and the 22nd meeting of the U.S.-China
Joint Commission on Commerce and Trade (JCCT) in China in the
second half of 2011. The two sides agreed to maintain close
communication between the foreign ministers of the two countries
through mutual visits, meetings, and other means.
15. The two sides emphasized the importance of continued interaction
between their legislatures, including institutionalized exchanges
between the National People’s Congress of China and the
U.S. Senate and House of Representatives.
Addressing Regional and Global Challenges
16. The two sides believe that the United States and China
have a common interest in promoting peace and security in the
Asia-Pacific region and beyond, and agreed to enhance communication
and coordination to address pressing regional and global challenges.
The two sides undertake to act to protect the global environment
and to work in concert on global issues to help safeguard and
promote the sustainable development of all countries and peoples.
Specifically, the United States and China agreed to advance
cooperation to: counter violent extremism; prevent the proliferation
of nuclear weapons, other weapons of mass destruction, and
their means of delivery; strengthen nuclear security; eliminate
infectious disease and hunger; end extreme poverty; respond
effectively to the challenge of climate change; counter piracy;
prevent and mitigate disasters; address cyber-security; fight
transnational crime; and combat trafficking in persons. In
coordination with other parties, the United States and China
will endeavor to increase cooperation to address common concerns
and promote shared interests.
17. The United States and China underlined their commitment
to the eventual realization of a world without nuclear weapons
and the need to strengthen the international nuclear non-proliferation
regime to address the threats of nuclear proliferation and
nuclear terrorism. In this regard, both sides support early
entry into force of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
(CTBT), reaffirmed their support for the early commencement
of negotiations on a Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty in the
Conference on Disarmament, and agreed to work together to reach
these goals. The two sides also noted their deepening cooperation
on nuclear security following the Washington Nuclear Security
Summit and signed a Memorandum of Understanding that will help
establish a Center of Excellence on Nuclear Security in China.
18. The United States and China agreed on the critical importance
of maintaining peace and stability on the Korean Peninsula
as underscored by the Joint Statement of September 19, 2005
and relevant UN Security Council Resolutions. Both sides expressed
concern over heightened tensions on the Peninsula triggered
by recent developments. The two sides noted their continuing
efforts to cooperate closely on matters concerning the Peninsula.
The United States and China emphasized the importance of an
improvement in North-South relations and agreed that sincere
and constructive inter-Korean dialogue is an essential step.
Agreeing on the crucial importance of denuclearization of the
Peninsula in order to preserve peace and stability in Northeast
Asia, the United States and China reiterated the need for concrete
and effective steps to achieve the goal of denuclearization
and for full implementation of the other commitments made in
the September 19, 2005 Joint Statement of the Six-Party Talks.
In this context, the United States and China expressed concern
regarding the DPRK’s claimed uranium enrichment program.
Both sides oppose all activities inconsistent with the 2005
Joint Statement and relevant international obligations and
commitments. The two sides called for the necessary steps that
would allow for early resumption of the Six-Party Talks process
to address this and other relevant issues.
19. On the Iranian nuclear issue, the United States and China
reiterated their commitment to seeking a comprehensive and
long-term solution that would restore international confidence
in the exclusively peaceful nature of Iran’s nuclear
program. Both sides agreed that Iran has the right to peaceful
uses of nuclear energy under the Non-Proliferation Treaty and
that Iran should fulfill its due international obligations
under that treaty. Both sides called for full implementation
of all relevant UN Security Council Resolutions. The United
States and China welcomed and will actively participate in
the P5+1 process with Iran, and stressed the importance of
all parties – including Iran – committing to a
constructive dialogue process.
20. Regarding Sudan, the United States and China agreed to
fully support the North-South peace process, including full
and effective implementation of Sudan’s Comprehensive
Peace Agreement. The two sides stressed the need for all sides
to respect the result of a free, fair, and transparent referendum.
Both the United States and China expressed concern on the Darfur
issue and believed that further, substantive progress should
be made in the political process in Darfur to promote the early,
comprehensive, and appropriate solution to this issue. Both
the United States and China have a continuing interest in the
maintenance of peace and stability in the wider region.
21. The two sides agreed to enhance communication and coordination
in the Asia-Pacific region in a spirit of mutual respect and
cooperation, and to work together with other Asia-Pacific countries,
including through multilateral institutions, to promote peace,
stability, and prosperity.
Building a Comprehensive and Mutually Beneficial Economic Partnership
22. President Obama and President Hu recognized the vital importance
of working together to build a cooperative economic partnership
of mutual respect and mutual benefit to both countries and
to the global economy. The two leaders agreed to promote comprehensive
economic cooperation, and will develop further a framework
of comprehensive economic cooperation, relying on existing
mechanisms, by the third round of the S&ED in May, based
on the main elements outlined below:
23. The two sides agreed to strengthen macroeconomic communication
and cooperation, in support of strong, sustainable and balanced
growth in the United States, China and the global economy:
* The United States will focus on reducing its medium-term
federal deficit and ensuring long-term fiscal sustainability,
and will maintain vigilance against excess volatility in exchange
rates. The Federal Reserve has taken important steps in recent
years to increase the clarity of its communications regarding
its outlook and longer run objectives.
* China will intensify efforts to expand domestic demand, to promote private
investment in the service sector, and to give greater play to the fundamental
role of the market in resource allocation. China will continue to promote RMB
exchange rate reform and enhance RMB exchange rate flexibility, and promote
the transformation of its economic development model.
* Both sides agree to continue to pursue forward-looking monetary policies
with due regards to the ramifications of those policies for the international
* The two sides affirmed support for efforts by European leaders to reinforce
market stability and promote sustainable, long-term growth.
24. The two countries, recognizing the importance of open trade
and investment in fostering economic growth, job creation, innovation,
and prosperity, affirmed their commitment to take further steps
to liberalize global trade and investment, and to oppose trade
and investment protectionism. The two sides also agreed to work
proactively to resolve bilateral trade and investment disputes
in a constructive, cooperative, and mutually beneficial manner.
25. The two leaders emphasized their strong commitment to direct
their negotiators to engage in across-the-board negotiations
to promptly bring the WTO Doha Development Round to a successful,
ambitious, comprehensive, and balanced conclusion, consistent
with the mandate of the Doha Development Round and built on
the progress already achieved. The two sides agreed that engagement
between our representatives must intensify and expand in order
to complete the end game.
26. The two leaders agreed on the importance of achieving a
more balanced trade relationship, and spoke highly of the progress
made on this front, including at the recent 21st Meeting of
the JCCT in Washington, D.C.
27. China will continue to strengthen its efforts to protect
IPR, including by conducting audits to ensure that government
agencies at all levels use legitimate software and by publishing
the auditing results as required by China’s law. China
will not link its innovation policies to the provision of government
procurement preferences. The United States welcomed China’s
agreement to submit a robust, second revised offer to the WTO
Government Procurement Committee before the Committee’s
final meeting in 2011, which will include sub-central entities.
28. The two leaders acknowledged the importance of fostering
open, fair, and transparent investment environments to their
domestic economies and to the global economy and reaffirmed
their commitment to the ongoing bilateral investment treaty
(BIT) negotiations, recognizing that a successful BIT negotiation
would support an open global economy by facilitating and protecting
investment, and enhancing transparency and predictability for
investors of both countries. China welcomed the United States’ commitment
to consult through the JCCT in a cooperative manner to work
towards China’s Market Economy Status in an expeditious
manner. China welcomed discussion between the two sides on
the ongoing reform of the U.S. export control system, and its
potential implications for U.S. exports to its major trading
partners, including China, consistent with U.S. national security
29. The two sides further acknowledged the deep and robust
nature of the commercial relationship, including the contracts
concluded at this visit, and welcomed the mutual economic benefits
resulting from the relationship.
30. The two sides agreed to continue working to make concrete
progress on the bilateral economic relationship through the
upcoming S&ED and the JCCT process.
31. The United States and China recognized the potential for
their firms to play a positive role in the infrastructure development
in each country and agreed to strengthen cooperation in this
32. The two countries committed to deepen bilateral and multilateral
cooperation on financial sector investment and regulation,
and support open environments for investment in financial services
and cross-border portfolio investment, consistent with prudential
and national security requirements. The United States is committed
to ensuring that the GSEs have sufficient capital and the ability
to meet their financial obligations.
33. The United States and China agree that currencies in the
SDR basket should only be those that are heavily used in international
trade and financial transactions. In that regard, the United
States supports China’s efforts over time to promote
inclusion of the RMB in the SDR basket.
34. The two countries pledged to work together to strengthen
the global financial system and reform the international financial
architecture. The two sides will continue their strong cooperation
to strengthen the legitimacy and improve the effectiveness
of the International Monetary Fund and Multilateral Development
Banks (MDBs). The two sides will jointly promote efforts of
the international community to assist developing countries,
in particular the Least Developed Countries to achieve the
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The two sides will also,
in partnership with the Multilateral Development Banks, explore
cooperation that supports global poverty reduction and development,
and regional integration including in Africa, to contribute
to inclusive and sustainable economic growth.
35. The two countries reiterated their support for the G-20
Framework for Strong, Sustainable and Balanced Growth and reaffirmed
their commitments made in the Seoul Summit Declaration, including
using the full range of policies to strengthen the global recovery
and to reduce excessive imbalances and maintain current account
imbalances at sustainable levels. The two sides support a bigger
role for the G-20 in international economic and financial affairs,
and pledged to strengthen communication and coordination to
follow through on the commitments of the G-20 summits and push
for positive outcomes at the Cannes Summit.
Cooperating on Climate Change, Energy and the Environment
36. The two sides view climate change and energy security as
two of the greatest challenges of our time. The United States
and China agreed to continue their close consultations on action
to address climate change, coordinate to achieve energy security
for our peoples and the world, build on existing clean energy
cooperation, ensure open markets, promote mutually beneficial
investment in climate friendly energy, encourage clean energy,
and facilitate advanced clean energy technology development.
37. Both sides applauded the progress made in clean energy
and energy security since the launch of the U.S.-China Clean
Energy Research Center, Renewable Energy Partnership, U.S.-China
Joint Statement on Energy Security Cooperation, and Energy
Cooperation Program (ECP). Both sides reaffirmed their ongoing
exchanges on energy policy and cooperation on oil, natural
gas (including shale gas), civilian nuclear energy, wind and
solar energy, smart grid, advanced bio-fuels, clean coal, energy
efficiency, electric vehicles and clean energy technology standards.
38. The two sides commended the progress made since the launch
of the U.S.-China Ten Year Framework on Energy and Environment
Cooperation (TYF) in 2008. They agreed to further strengthen
practical cooperation under the TYF, carry out action plans
in the priority areas of water, air, transportation, electricity,
protected areas, wetlands, and energy efficiency, engage in
policy dialogues, and implement the EcoPartnerships program.
The United States and China were also pleased to announce two
new EcoPartnerships. The two sides welcomed local governments,
enterprises, and research institutes of the two countries to
participate in the TYF, and jointly explore innovative models
for U.S.-China energy and environment cooperation. The two
sides welcomed the cooperation projects and activities which
will be carried out in 2011 under the TYF.
39. The two sides welcomed the Cancun agreements and believed
that it is important that efforts to address climate change
also advance economic and social development. Working together
and with other countries, the two sides agreed to actively
promote the comprehensive, effective, and sustained implementation
of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change,
including the implementation of the Cancun agreements and support
efforts to achieve positive outcomes at this year’s conference
in South Africa.
Expanding People-to-People Exchanges
40. The United States and China have long supported deeper
and broader people-to-people ties as part of a larger effort
to build a cooperative partnership based on mutual respect
and mutual benefit. Both sides agreed to take concrete steps
to enhance these people-to-people exchanges. Both sides noted
with satisfaction the successful Expo 2010 Shanghai, and the
Chinese side complimented the United States on its USA Pavilion.
The two sides announced the launch of a U.S.-China Governors
Forum and decided to further support exchanges and cooperation
at local levels in a variety of fields, including support for
the expansion of the sister province and city relationships.
The United States and China also agreed to take concrete steps
to strengthen dialogue and exchanges between their young people,
particularly through the 100,000 Strong Initiative. The United
States warmly welcomes more Chinese students in American educational
institutions, and will continue to facilitate visa issuance
for them. The two sides agreed to discuss ways of expanding
cultural interaction, including exploring a U.S.-China cultural
year event and other activities. The two sides underscored
their commitment to further promoting and facilitating increased
tourism. The United States and China agreed that all these
activities help deepen understanding, trust, and cooperation.
41. President Hu Jintao expressed his thanks to President Obama
and the American people for their warm reception and hospitality
during his visit. The two Presidents agreed that the visit
has furthered U.S.-China relations, and both sides resolved
to work together to build a cooperative partnership based on
mutual respect and mutual benefit. The two Presidents shared
a deep belief that a stronger U.S.-China relationship not only
serves the fundamental interests of their respective peoples,
but also benefits the entire Asia-Pacific region and the world.
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